传统surveillance approaches in collaboration with citizen science improves the known distribution of invasive Aedes japonicus in Spain


Mosquito species from the genusAedes是全世界人类和动物的病毒和寄生疾病的主要媒介。

特别是几种物种特别有能力的向量arboviral传染病,例如埃及埃及Ae。albopictus, the vectors of Dengue fever, chikungunya and Zika fever, among others.

两种物种的分布在古典上都与东南亚的热带和亚热带地区有关。但是,最近几十年的分布Ae。埃及Ae。albopictushas increased dramatically, having colonised and established themselves on every continent other than Antarctica.

有几个原因可能是这种入侵的基础,包括但不限于贸易的日益增加(例如国际使用的轮胎贸易),全球变暖,非凡的贸易生理和生态可塑性of these mosquito species (e.g. enabling adaptation to colder climates), and overall reduction in global biodiversity (allowing an increase in range and abundance without strict competition).


Aedes japonicus

Another, less well-known species,Aedes japonicus(Asian bush mosquito) is becoming equally widespread and invasive, particularly across Europe – becoming第三种侵入性蚊子要报告。


虽然不认为是高风险的向量Ae。埃及Ae。albopictus, the species has beendemonstrated to transmit arbovirusesthat cause diseases with significant public health consequences, such as theWest Nile virusLa Crosse virus在美国,除了登革热和基孔肯雅.

First reported in Europe in a法国轮胎仓库在2000年,Ae。Japonicushas since spread and established itself across at least 15 European countries, with no less than fourAe。Japonicus被认为存在的人口集群。

Current distribution status ofAedes japonicus整个欧洲。黄色:引入。红色:建立。资料来源:Eritja等,2021 - 改编自欧洲疾病预防与控制中心

Combined surveillance method approach

Arecent study by Roger Eritja and colleagues提高了我们对分布的理解Ae。Japonicusacross Spain, and outlined an effective multi-sourced surveillance approach that utilises traditional monitoring by public health institutions and academic researchers in collaboration with the citizen science platform蚊子警报.

The Mosquito Alert platform allows users to upload geolocated images of adult mosquitoes and breeding sites that can later be validated by entomologists to confirm sightings ofAe。Japonicus, as well as other invasive mosquito species.



Prior to this study,Ae。Japonicushad been detected and considered established in the Asturias region in Northern Spain. Utilising this multi-sourced approach directed by initial identification through Mosquito Alert allowed researchers to identifyAe。Japonicus在西班牙,坎塔布里亚和巴斯克地区的两个新地区,从<900公里处扩大了已知的分销范围2to > 7000km2.

Interestingly, this population cluster ofAe。Japonicusin Northern Spain is isolated from other European populations and is large in size and distribution range, and therefore raises the possibility that there have been several overseas introduction events, rather than a single introduction followed by dispersal to other European countries. The path of introduction forAe。Japonicusin Spain is unknown at this time, but points of entry are typically considered to be seaports and airports.


In this study the average flight distance ofAe。Japonicuswere determined to be about 1600m, which, when taken with evidence ofAe。Japonicusbreeding in tree holes, rock pools and artificial containers (e.g. cattle troughs, abandoned baths, used tires) raises the possibility thatAe。Japonicusdispersal could occur naturally though riparian corridors, rather than via road networks. This is somewhat worrying though as surveillance classically occurs at known points of entry and major road networks, and therefore this spread through riparian corridors could allowAe。Japonicus在进一步散布或爆发之前,在更偏远的自然区域中“默默地”建立自己(一个sleeper population) to urban and semi-urban environments.

Tip of the iceberg?

专家和公民在更广泛的空间和时间尺度上进行的现场抽样相结合提供了比依靠一种方法更有效,灵活和成本效益的监视策略,并且在检测入侵物种方面尤其有用如Aedes japonicus.

Further to this work, the authors intend to assess the genetic relationship of differentAe。Japonicuspopulations across Europe in order to shed light on possible methods of introduction and better infer the dispersal strategies utilised byAe。Japonicus和other invasive mosquito species.

作者还承认,应进行邻近西班牙省(例如加利西亚)的其他监视,以查看其分布范围是否比本研究中检测到的更大Ae。Japonicuspresence than detected thus far, and that we’re just at the tip of the iceberg.